Female Back Anatomy: A Comprehensive Guide

Female Back Anatomy: A Comprehensive Guide

Fred Bahnson 


In this article, we will explore the anatomy and function of the female back, focusing on the pelvis. Understanding the female pelvis is crucial as it plays a vital role in supporting the abdominal organs, bladder, and reproductive system. We will delve into the bones, muscles, and organs that constitute the female pelvis, discuss various conditions that can affect it, and provide helpful health tips to maintain its well-being.

Anatomy and Function of the Female Pelvis

Bones of the Female Pelvis

The female pelvis comprises several bones that provide structural support. Let’s take a closer look at these bones:

  1. Hip Bones: The pelvic girdle consists of two hip bones, one on each side of the body. These bones connect to the upper part of the skeleton through the sacrum. Each hip bone consists of three fused bones:
    • Ilium: The largest part of the hip bone, the ilium, is broad and fan-shaped. You can feel the arches of these bones when you place your hands on your hips.
    • Pubis: The pubis bone of each hip connects to the other at a joint called the pubis symphysis.
    • Ischium: The ischium bones bear the body’s weight when sitting and are commonly known as sit bones.

    The ilium, pubis, and ischium of each hip bone come together to form the acetabulum, which serves as the attachment point for the femur (thigh bone).

  2. Sacrum: The sacrum is a thick, triangular bone located below the lumbar vertebrae. It consists of five fused vertebrae and provides crucial support for the pelvis.
  3. Coccyx: Commonly referred to as the tailbone, the coccyx is connected to the sacrum and supported by ligaments. It is composed of four fused vertebrae, forming a triangular shape.

Muscles of the Female Pelvis

The female pelvis contains various muscles, including the prominent levator ani muscles and coccygeus. Let’s explore these muscles:

  1. Levator Ani Muscles: The levator ani muscles are the largest group of muscles in the pelvis and have multiple functions, including supporting the pelvic organs. They consist of three separate muscles:
    • Puborectalis: This muscle helps in controlling urination and bowel movements. It relaxes during these processes.
    • Pubococcygeus: Originating at the pubis bone and connecting to the coccyx, this muscle constitutes the majority of the levator ani muscles.
    • Iliococcygeus: With thinner fibers, the iliococcygeus muscle lifts the pelvic floor and anal canal.
  2. Coccygeus: This small muscle is located in the pelvic floor, originating at the ischium and connecting to the sacrum and coccyx.

Organs of the Female Pelvis

The female pelvis houses essential reproductive and excretory organs. Let’s examine these organs:

  1. Uterus: The uterus is a hollow, muscular organ where fetal development occurs during pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the uterine lining sheds during menstruation.
  2. Ovaries: There are two ovaries located on either side of the uterus. They produce eggs and release hormones such as estrogen and progesterone.
  3. Fallopian Tubes: These tubes connect each ovary to the uterus. Ciliated cells in the fallopian tubes help move eggs from the ovaries towards the uterus.
  4. Cervix: The cervix connects the uterus to the vagina and can expand during childbirth to allow sperm entry. Additionally, the cervical mucus helps prevent bacteria from reaching the uterus.
  5. Vagina: The vagina serves as a passageway between the cervix and external female genitalia. It also acts as the birth canal during delivery.
  6. Rectum: The rectum is the terminal part of the large intestine where feces collect before elimination through the anus.
  7. Bladder: The bladder is responsible for storing urine until it is expelled from the body. Urine reaches the bladder through tubes called ureters, which connect to the kidneys.
  8. Urethra: The urethra is a tube through which urine exits the body from the bladder. In females, the urethra is relatively shorter compared to males.

Ligaments of the Female Pelvis

Ligaments provide additional support and stability to the female pelvis. Let’s explore the ligaments involved:

  1. Broad Ligament: The broad ligament supports the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. It extends to both sides of the pelvic wall and consists of three components:
    • Mesometrium: Supports the uterus.
    • Mesovarium: Supports the ovaries.
    • Mesosalpinx: Supports the fallopian tubes.
  2. Uterine Ligaments: Uterine ligaments provide additional support to the uterus and include the round ligament, cardinal ligaments, pubocervical ligaments, and uterosacral ligaments.
  3. Ovarian Ligaments: These ligaments support the ovaries and include the ovarian ligament and the suspensory ligament of the ovary.

Female Pelvis Diagram

To further understand the female pelvis, refer to the interactive 3-D diagram below:

Female Pelvis Diagram

Conditions Affecting the Female Pelvis

Various conditions can impact the female pelvis due to the complex interplay of organs, bones, muscles, and ligaments within this region. Here are some notable conditions:

  1. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID): PID is an infection that primarily affects the female reproductive system. It can be caused by sexually transmitted infections or other types of infections. If left untreated, PID may lead to complications such as infertility or ectopic pregnancy.
  2. Pelvic Organ Prolapse: This condition occurs when the muscles in the pelvis can no longer adequately support organs like the bladder, uterus, or rectum. As a result, these organs may protrude into the vagina, causing discomfort and a bulging sensation.
  3. Endometriosis: Endometriosis is a condition where the tissue lining the uterus (endometrium) grows outside of the uterus. It commonly affects the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and other pelvic tissues. Endometriosis can lead to complications, including infertility or an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

Symptoms of Pelvic Conditions

It is important to recognize the symptoms that may indicate a pelvic condition. Common symptoms include:

  • Lower abdominal or pelvic pain
  • Pressure or fullness in the pelvis
  • Unusual or foul-smelling vaginal discharge
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Bleeding between periods
  • Painful cramping during or before menstruation
  • Pain during bowel movements or urination
  • Burning sensation while urinating

Tips for Maintaining a Healthy Pelvis

To promote pelvic health, follow these tips:

  1. Regular Reproductive Health Check-ups: Schedule yearly health screenings with a gynecologist, including pelvic exams and Pap smears, to detect pelvic conditions or infections early. Many clinics, such as Planned Parenthood, offer affordable or free pelvic exams.
  2. Practice Safe Sex: Use barriers like condoms or dental dams, particularly with new partners, to reduce the risk of infections that can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease.
  3. Perform Pelvic Floor Exercises: Strengthen your pelvic floor muscles by engaging in exercises specifically designed for this purpose. Strong pelvic floor muscles can help prevent issues such as incontinence or organ prolapse. Here’s how to get started:

    a. Identify the pelvic floor muscles by imagining you are trying to stop the flow of urine. b. Contract these muscles for a few seconds, then relax. c. Repeat this exercise multiple times throughout the day.

  4. Pay Attention to Unusual Symptoms: If you experience any unusual symptoms in your pelvic area, such as irregular bleeding or unexplained pain, consult a healthcare professional. Prompt diagnosis and treatment can prevent long-term health issues and fertility complications.

By understanding the anatomy, function, and care of the female pelvis, you can maintain optimal pelvic health and overall well-being.